The Goal of the Project
The main goal of this project – to analyze wave spectra climate of the Black and Azov Seas. The objectives expected to be achieved in line with this main goal are:
- Developing of an unstructured grid with high spatial resolution for entire seas
- Implementation of two state of the art wave models SWAN and WaveWatchIII for the Black and Azov Seas
- Producing a data base of the spectra for the Black and Azov Seas for 1979-2019
- Classifying the wave spectra in different spectral types of shapes (several types)
- Spatial analysis of spectral wave climate for 1979-2019
- Determining of mean spectral characteristics in the Black and Azov Seas
- Long term trend analysis of peak or total wave energy using trend tests
- Determination of storm intensity scales based on the Dolan and Davis (1992) method
The Scope of the Project
During the last decades, the wave climate data are mainly treated as the long-term statistics of significant wave heights Hs, mean (or peak) periods T and main directions θ at selected points or in certain regions of the Ocean. The techniques for the assessment of wave induced loads for the design of ships and offshore structures require not only estimates of (Hs, T, θ), but also information about the directional wave spectrum S(f, θ), where f is the frequency and θ direction. So the traditional approach has been to use wave climate atlas to provide the basic statistics about the probability of occurrence of sea states defined by (Hs, T, θ), and then to assume that each of these sea states was described by a Pierson–Moskowitz spectrum or more recently by a JONSWAP spectrum. As the understanding of the nature of sea states has evolved it became clear that in many occasions the sea state could not be described simply by those spectral models that represent a single wave system and that in many cases it was necessary to describe sea states resulting from a combination of swell and wind sea and even with more than one swell component. Ochi and Hubble (1976) and Guedes Soares (1984) have proposed spectral models to describe the combined systems of swell and wind sea, and Guedes Soares and Nolasco (1992), among others, have shown that the two-peaked spectra still occur with a relatively high frequency, which makes them important to be used in the design approach. Van Vledder and Akpinar (2016) studied the spectral shapes in the Black Sea using a spectral partitioning method and found that even in the enclose Black Sea basin bi-modal sea states occur. It took many years for the shipping and offshore industry to realize the importance of accounting for this combined seas situation in the design approach but in the recent years there have been an increasing interest and adoption of these cases in industrial applications as indicated in (Ewans et al., 2006). This interest has motivated us as it shows that it is necessary to promote the existence of a more comprehensive wave data atlas and to produce a spectra database for a more comprehensive wave climate description. Thus, the wave spectra in the Black and Azov Seas will be classified in different spectral types of shapes for the first time.
Surface waves generated by winds are of importance for scientific and practical use. The sea state is often described in the frequency domain by a wave spectrum. The wave spectrum describes how the wave energy is distributed over a range of frequencies and is used to identify the different wave systems present at the measurement location (Guedes Soares, 1991; Hanson and Phillips, 2001; Cuchiara et al., 2009). The spectral description of the sea states is an important input for the design of marine structures. However, wave spectral characteristics are not well known Black and Azov Sea, there is no work on determining wave spectral properties of the Black and Azov Seas. And thus, mean spectral properties of wave climate of the Black and Azov Seas will be determined for the first time.
The peak energies of the waves are one of the most important indicators of wave impact on the coasts. The greater the peak energy wave reaches the shore, the greater the damage to our shores. In order to realize these damages, as well as the analysis of wave spectra, the trends of peak energies to be obtained from these spectra will be investigated. As it is known, there are some studies (Casas-Prat and Sierra, 2012; Martucci et al., 2010 etc.) in the world on the trend of average and extreme significant wave height. However, a study will be conducted for the first time on trend analysis of peak energies.
Besides the above analyses, to ensure the optimal protection and the economical and sustainable development of coastal and offshore installations, knowledge of the storm regime is also important and fundamental. A wave storm by definition is not only limited to extreme waves, but it depends mainly on three parameters: Storm wave persistence, wave direction and the storm profile (yielding maximum and average wave height during the storm events). The study of long-term characteristics of these three parameters allows us to define the different storm categories and the different risks to which the coasts may be exposed. In this way, the effects of wave setup and the generation of Infra-Gravity waves causing coastal inundation and harbor oscillations can be determined. Storm regimes based on a classification of storm intensities in the Black and Azov Seas will be determined for the first time.
Yürütücü: Doç Dr Murat Kankal
Araştırmacı: Prof Dr Adem Akpınar
Doktora Sonrası Araştırmacı: Dr Khalid Amarouche
Bursiyer: Ajab Gul Majidi
Bursiyer: Mehmet Burak Soran